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Wednesday, February 13

  1. page HarlemRenaissanceBios edited Mr. Mr. Gershman Mrs. Nathaniel Rasmussen ILA 9 Honors 10/29/08 ... Langston received man…

    Mr.
    Mr. Gershman Mrs.
    Nathaniel Rasmussen
    ILA 9 Honors 10/29/08
    ...
    Langston received many awards some of which including: Opportunity magazine Literary Contest, first prize in poetry, 1925; Amy Spingarn Contest, Crisis Magazine, poetry and essay prizes, 1925; Witter Bynner Undergraduate Poetry Prize contests, first prize, 1926; Palms Magazine Intercollegiate Poetry Award, 1927; Harmon Gold Medal for Literature, 1931; Guggenheim fellowship for creative work, 1935; Rosenwald fellowship, 1941; Litt.D., Lincoln University, 1943, Howard University, 1960, Western Reserve University, 1964; National Institute and American Academy of Arts and Letters grant, 1947; Anisfeld-Wolfe Award for best book on racial relations, 1954; Spingarn Medal, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1960 (Contemporary Authors Online).
    Langston Hughes was considered one of the greatest, if not the best of inspirational Negro writers during the Harlem Renaissance. Even today he is looked at as one of the greatest poets. He was a role model, and an inspirational citizen who helped the lives of all African-Americans.
    {langston_hughes.jpg}
    Works Cited
    Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2008. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2008. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC
    (view changes)

Monday, November 12

  1. page BeatGeneration edited ... All in all, people, events, and the media in the Beat Generation greatly predisposed society t…
    ...
    All in all, people, events, and the media in the Beat Generation greatly predisposed society to drift away from the typical business suits, clean haircuts, and stay-at-home housewives, and lean more towards flannel jackets, straight hair, and women with careers. A person could decide to be whoever they wanted with a sense of uniqueness and individuality (Holmes). Poetry of the Beat movement showed people that there was more to life than televisions and materialistic ideals. And thus, the society began to change their mainstream American ways to more relaxed and peaceful means of living.
    {beat_comic_pic.gif} ("Beatniks") {continued_beat_comic.gif} ("Beatniks")
    ...
    in San Fransisco)
    Works
    Fransisco)Works Cited
    “George Wallace.” American History. ABC-CLIO. 18 Oct. 2008 <http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/>.
    Ginsberg, Allen. “America.” Unpublished diary.
    (view changes)

Tuesday, January 10

  1. page ModernistFreeVerse edited Modernist Free Verse (1920-Present) This The period you are reading about includes many poe…
    Modernist Free Verse (1920-Present)
    ThisThe period you are reading about includes many poets such
    ...
    poets wrote throughoutthrough a large
    ...
    very different eras of time.eras. As will
    ...
    this section do have some
    A Block ILA 9 Honors Modernist Free Verse Movement
    Jen Crilly: T.S. Eliot
    ...
    Modernist Free Verse (1920-Present) Historical Assessment
    Origin & Philosophy
    ...
    poetry, poetry did taketook the lead
    A few definitions of Modernism according to the authors of The Bedford Glossary of Critical and Literary Terms, Ross Murfin and Supryia M. Ray, include, “a revolutionary movement encompassing all of the creative arts that had its roots in the 1890’s," and ,"a transitional period during which artists and writers sought to liberate themselves from the constraints and polite conventions we associate with Victorianism,” (American Modernism 14). Modernism was a revolt against the Victorian era. Poets wanted to go against previous traditions, and break away. They wanted to establish new ways of writing poetry. Also, “modernism can be seen as a reflection of, or reaction to, modernization in the Industrial Revolution,” ("A History and Overview of American Modernism" 15). In addition, Modernism was not only a revolt against the Victorian era, but it was also a revolt against “the established literary definition tradition, societal norms and cultural order,” (Howe 28). All in all, Modernism was a rebellion against the previous literary traditions in Europe. With the changes that came from the Industrial Revolution, poetry was included.
    Significant Political History / Specific & Influential Cultural Events
    ...
    The Modernist Free Verse Poetry "movement" carried on into the 1950s during which, new laws were created and previous traditions continues to change. In 1952, the Immigration and Nationality Act was formed. The act restructured the immigration law so that the racial and ethnic obstacles to becoming a U.S. citizen were removed. Another cultural event occurred when the Supreme Court deemed racial segregation unconstitutional in 1954 (Whitley). This meant that people of all races would be treated equally, and everyone could sit in the same places that white people could. The change took place after the famous Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka (Whitley). The case was decided with several others that dealt with the same issue. However, the name of the Brown case is usually used in referring to the decision. This new law was a huge point in history, which has lead to the America of today because it helped to desegregate the country. In addition, the decade, as well as parts of the 1940s and 1960s, is referred to the time period of the “baby boomers” because so many children were born.
    The Civil Rights movement occurred throughout the 1960s. Some leaders of the movement were Martin Luther King Jr. and Stokely Carmichael who organized peaceful protests, and Malcolm X who preached Black Nationalism. After the assassination of Malcolm X, a group called the Black Panthers was formed. In 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. presented his “I Have A Dream” speech, which was very inspirational. he hoped that one day, everyone would be treated equally, no matter what race they are. Due to the unequal treatment towards women, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was written. The act banned discrimination in public places, and called for the integration of schools and other public facilities. The act also made employment discrimination illegal. Another major change was when both abortion and artificial insemination became legal in some states in 1967 (Whitley). This time period focused on “hippies” and youth rebellion too. Respect for authority diminished, Marijuana use rapidly increased, and the Woodstock Festival took place. Two events which marked huge events in history happened in 1963. The historical events discussed refer to the assassination of president John F. Kennedy, by Lee Harvey Oswald, and the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. The assassinations took the country by surprise, as people never for saw anything as extreme as the president and the famous liberal being killed, especially not both in the same year. At the end of the 1960s, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were the first men to walk onto the moon in 1969. The outerspace journey was very momentous for the United States because it ment that they had won the race to the moon against Russia. The 1960s was certainly an eventful decade in America.
    ...
    Luther King Jr.)Jr.)Martin Luther King Jr. had a dream
    Modernist Free Verse poetry continued to be written into the 1970s. During the dacade, the Vietnam War, which began in the 1960s, was still ongoing. The war continued to divide the United States even after the Paris Peace Accords were signed on January 17, 1973. The agreement ended the United States military’s involvement. Also, crime continued to rise despite the fact that president Nixon said that he would make law a main concern. In 1965, another Immigration Act was formed since many people from Third World Countries were coming to America in search of economic betterment or to escape political repression (Whitley). Also, women, minorities, and gay people ordered full legal equality and privileges in society. The first Gay Pride march was held in New York City on June 28, 1970. It commemorated the first anniversary of the Stonewall Rebellion, and is considered to be the beginning of the modern Gay Lesbian Bisexual Transexual (GLBT) movement (Whitley).
    {GLBT.jpg} First Gay Pride March (First Gay Pride March)
    (view changes)
  2. page ModernistFreeVerse edited ... Modernist Free Verse (1920-Present) Historical Assessment Origin & Philosophy ... (Ung…
    ...
    Modernist Free Verse (1920-Present) Historical Assessment
    Origin & Philosophy
    ...
    (Unger 4). Poetry is a growing process, and is constantly changing over the years. Modernism originated in Europe, but soon became popular in America and other countries as well.
    A few definitions of Modernism according to the authors of The Bedford Glossary of Critical and Literary Terms, Ross Murfin and Supryia M. Ray, include, “a revolutionary movement encompassing all of the creative arts that had its roots in the 1890’s," and ,"a transitional period during which artists and writers sought to liberate themselves from the constraints and polite conventions we associate with Victorianism,” (American Modernism 14). Modernism was a revolt against the Victorian era. Poets wanted to go against previous traditions, and break away. They wanted to establish new ways of writing poetry. Also, “modernism can be seen as a reflection of, or reaction to, modernization in the Industrial Revolution,” ("A History and Overview of American Modernism" 15). In addition, Modernism was not only a revolt against the Victorian era, but it was also a revolt against “the established literary definition tradition, societal norms and cultural order,” (Howe 28). All in all, Modernism was a rebellion against the previous literary traditions in Europe. With the changes that came from the Industrial Revolution, poetry was included.
    Significant Political History / Specific & Influential Cultural Events
    ...
    “Culture now goes to war against itself, partly in order to salvage its purpose, and the result is that it can no longer present itself with a Goethian serenity and wholeness” (American Modernism 32). Culture and society were in a state of disarray due to the Modernist Free Verse movement. Poets were doing something different and people had mixed feelings about the honesty and feelings of the Modernist poets. Times were changing in the world as the 1900s progressed. The poets of the past were no more. People such as T.S. Eliot, Gwendolyn Brooks, Sylvia Plath, E.E. Cummings, and Marianne Moore are just a few of those worthy to mention as great Modernist poets. There’s no doubt that these new poets made history. At first people were a bit hesitant about the changes, but soon grew to love the poetry that is still being written today.
    {old_man_jawnskey.jpg} American Poet T.S. Eliot is Shown Seated in his London Office On Jan. 19, 1956 (American Poet T.S. Eliot)
    Works Cited Worker
    American Modernism. Ed. Bruno Leone, Bonnie Szumski, and David M. Haugen. San
    Diego: David L. Bender, 2000.
    (view changes)

Saturday, November 12

  1. page BeatGenerationOriginalPoems edited Jess A, Amanda D, Nathan K, Clay E, Eric M ... 9 Honors Imitation of Allen Ginsberg's Americ…
    Jess A, Amanda D, Nathan K, Clay E, Eric M
    ...
    9 Honors
    Imitation of Allen Ginsberg's America
    America
    (view changes)

Tuesday, September 13

  1. page AmericanRenaissance edited ... This period includes poets such as Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, Walt Whitman, Carl Sandburg,…
    ...
    This period includes poets such as Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, Walt Whitman, Carl Sandburg, and Edgar Allen Poe. Historically, these were times of tragedies and celebrations including some as traumatic as the American Civil War or as great as the induction of new states such as Wyoming, Idaho, Alaska, and Hawaii. Socially, many were focused on the art movement of Impressionism and Claude Monet’s influence, as well as the creation of the American League of Professional Baseball Clubs and the Daughters of the American Revolution.
    The movement of poetry in this time period is focused on several different themes including Romanticism and Transcendentalism. The influence of Whitman and Dickinson are often said to be two of the most dramatic transformations, as these two poets were active participants in society and were known to widely experiment with different forms of poetry.
    ...
    Renaissance Group:
    Jess Bellis
    Carolyn Messer
    ...
    llllllllllllllThe Civil War was not only about slavery, but also about economic differences, political differences, and social differences. The South was attempting to split from the Union. South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee all withdrew from the union, and formed the Confederate States of America. Abraham Lincoln became the 16th president and stated that from now on, no state was permitted to own slaves. Northerners were making their disapproval of the Southerners' use of slavery public, and also showed that they disliked the South’s attitude towards the government. The South was defending their use of slavery by stating that the Bible approved of the act (“A War Begins”). They told writers that most slaves were content with their life, which people believed because communication was limited at the time ("Abolition"). They also were attempting to expand slavery into new territories, upsetting the North even more (“A War Begins”). {civil%20war%20soldiers.jpg} Confederate and Union Soldiers ("Soldiers")
    llllllllllllllOn December 20, 1860, the war was officially started by the United States declaring war on the Confederate States. The Northerners were fighting to preserve the union, and the Southerners fought to give the right to "secede and establish a nation that guaranteed a person's right to own slaves,” (“A War Begins”). Neither party was fully prepared for the war ahead, but the North had its advantages. The Northern region had a larger population for military force, money, credit, food production, mineral resources, and transportation. The South was hurt by food shortages, unpredictable slave laborers, shortages of medicine, and heavy artillery, but their one advantage was the South had more war experienced men. The Civil War was a time of misery, want, and worry by individuals on the warfront, in addition to their attempts to comfort and support their soldiers. The South’s small advantage did not help much because they experienced more want and misery than the North. Thousands of women had to fulfill the role of running family farms and plantations because their husbands were in war (“War on the Homefront”).
    ...
    had been fre edfreed or were
    Specific and Influential Cultural Events
    llllllllllllllThroughout the American Renaissance, many people's lives and culture were changed sometimes for the better and sometimes for the worse. During these times, slavery was going on, and kept going on until it was finally abolished in 1865 (the most significant result of the Civil War). Before and in the beginning of the war, slavery was at large. Plantations were everywhere in the south. On every plantation were plenty of slaves- working hard, sun up to sun down and receiving little compensation. During the war, slaves were forced to go in and fight. As a result of the war, slavery was abolished, therefore, all slaves were freed. Some of the former slaves made the “great exodus” to the northern states where they could live freely. The majority of the former slaves made the migration to the north where they got jobs and started their lives as free people of color. However, racism still remained in the north. African-Americans could live freely, but were still poorly treated by the rest of society. Over the years, laws like the Jim Crow Laws and the Separate-but-Equal Act have been abolished. Now all races live freely in America. This is one example of a cultural change in society during the American Renaissance.
    ...
    “A War Begins.” American History. 2008. ABC-CLIO. 18 Oct. 2008 <http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/>.
    “War on the Homefront.” American History. 2008. ABC-CLIO. 18 Oct. 2008 <http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/>.
    ...
    18 Oct. 2008 <http://www.2facts.com/>.2008<http://www.2facts.com/>.
    Wayne, Tiffany K. “Romanticism and Transcendentalism.” Bloom’s Literary Reference Online. 2006. Facts On File News Services. 18 Oct. llllll2008. llllll<http://www.2facts.com/>.
    (view changes)
    5:17 am
  2. page BeatGeneration edited {Allen_Ginsberg_at_the_Human_Be-In.jpg} Allen Ginsberg at the Human Be-In. ("Allen Ginsberg …
    {Allen_Ginsberg_at_the_Human_Be-In.jpg} Allen Ginsberg at the Human Be-In. ("Allen Ginsberg at the...")The Beat Generation
    ...
    Sixties Counterculture.
    {THE_BEAT_GEN.jpg}
    A Block ILA 9 Honors Beat Generation
    ...
    ~Eric McGowan: Gregory Corso
    ~Amanda Dennis: Joanne Kyger
    Origin
    Jack Kerouac was the founder of the movement and name, “Beat Generation." He used the term to describe a new perspective of life that the beat followers, or beatniks persued. Kerouac was a novelist and a great poet throughout the 60’s. He wrote novels like On the Road, The Dharma Bums, and The Subterraneans which proved to be the foundation of the Beat Generation, along with Allen Ginsberg's Howl. “I am the originator of the term Beat Generation, and around it the term and the generation have {Jack_Kerouac.jpg} Jack Kerouac was one of the people who sparked the Beat movement. ("Jack Kerouac")
    taken shape," Kerouac declared (Zott). When beat movement ideas expanded, Kerouac complained, “The Beat Generation was being taken up by everyone” (Zott). The press, TV, and Hollywood portrayed beatniks with various stereotypes. These stereotypes ranged from fools protesting professional baseball, to guys in jeans with snap knives, and swastikas tattooed on their under-arms. But Kerouac insisted that the phrase simply means “poor, down and out, dead beat, on the bum, or sad" (Zott). But these beat writers were very intelectual. Ginsberg and Kerouac met while attending Columbia University. Also, William Burroughs, another beatnik, attended Harvard University. The political history also played a signifigant role in the Origin of the Beat Generation. World War II, The Cold War, and other harsh times influenced the beatniks to attempt building a new society. The Beat Generation was also advertised by an 18 year old California girl who was consistently making it to the newspapers throughout the 50’s. The young lady was recognized while she was smoking marijuana and wanted to speak about it. While a reporter took down her thoughts, someone snapped a picture (Holmes 1). As her picture and her attitude spread through the media, the Beat Generation became an even bigger movement. In this girl's face, there was no hint of corruption, but there was a turning-point for a new Beat Generation (Holmes 1). This young lady's "leave us alone" outlook was the perfect voice for the Beat Generation.
    Philosophy
    ...
    and responsibility.
    Another common portrayal of the Beat Generation’s philosophy is the spontaneity of the time. In the Beatniks’ lives, life was about naturalness. Spur-the-moment roadtrips, improvised jazz performances, and other social behaviors were not uncommon for the beatniks. Also, experimentations through sexuality and drugs were part of it as well. They saw these experiments as a way to escape the average American culture. The beatniks’ free-spirited behaviors were not only seen as a way to escape but also a form of protest against the formal etiquette of life and against the upcoming war (taking place in post WWII). The creative works in literature and art lay a visual trail on how the beatniks thought. As for literature, Jack Kerouac’s “Essentials of a Spontaneous Prose” and “Belief & Technique for Modern Prose” represent a great deal of the art of the Beat Generation.
    Overall, the beatniks had their own life style. Their philosophy was based on spontaneity, enlightenment, and liberation. Whether it was written, spoken, or experimented, it was completely different and uncommon when it all was compared to the robotic lifestyle of the “regular” American.
    ...
    All in all, people, events, and the media in the Beat Generation greatly predisposed society to drift away from the typical business suits, clean haircuts, and stay-at-home housewives, and lean more towards flannel jackets, straight hair, and women with careers. A person could decide to be whoever they wanted with a sense of uniqueness and individuality (Holmes). Poetry of the Beat movement showed people that there was more to life than televisions and materialistic ideals. And thus, the society began to change their mainstream American ways to more relaxed and peaceful means of living.
    {beat_comic_pic.gif} ("Beatniks") {continued_beat_comic.gif} ("Beatniks")
    ...
    San Fransisco)
    Works Cited
    “George Wallace.” American History. ABC-CLIO. 18 Oct. 2008 <http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/>.
    ...
    <http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/>.
    Holmes, John Clellon. “This is the Beat Generation.” The New York Times Magazine 16 Nov. 1952: 1-5. 23 Oct. 2008 <http://www.litkicks.com.com/‌Texts/‌ThisIsBeatGen.html>.
    ...
    2008 <http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/>.
    Lawlor, William T. "News Media and Publicity." Beat Culture: Icons, Lifestyles, and Impact.
    California: ABC-CLIO, 2005. 260-262.
    ...
    <http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/>.
    Jewish Climate Initiative. 21 Oct. 2008 <http://images.google.com/‌imgres?imgurl=http://www.poster.net/‌kennedy-john-f/‌kennedy>.
    ...
    2008 <http://images.google.com/‌imgres?imgurl=http://bp1.blogger.com/>.
    Sounds of the Sixties. 1969. American History. ABC-CLIO. 18 Oct. 2008 <http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/>.
    (view changes)
    5:16 am

Wednesday, September 7

  1. page WarPoetryBios edited {banner.jpg} Rupert Brooke {2646271432_3dc54560be.jpg} Catherine Wetmore Rupert Brooke est…

    {banner.jpg}
    Rupert Brooke {2646271432_3dc54560be.jpg} Catherine Wetmore
    Rupert Brooke established himself as a young, talented poet during World War I, but it was his premature death at age 27 that made him a symbol of the
    tragic loss of youth during the war. Born in 1887 as Rupert Chawner Brooke at Rugby, Warwickshire, England, Brooke was the son of the housemaster of
    Rugby School. He entered the school at age fourteen, excelling in his academics and athletics and acquiring a love for poetry. Later, he attended King’s
    College at Cambridge University, studying literature (“Rupert Brooke” Poets.org).
    At Cambridge, he developed a reputation for his charm, intellect and good looks, even once described as “the best-looking man in Britain.” Similar to other
    young poets of the time, Brooke rebelled against Victorianism, devoting himself to simple, strong poetry with realism. This poetry “shunned affectedly literary
    phrasing and relied on a diction appropriate to the incidents of life which it portrayed” (qtd. in “Rupert Brooke” Biography Resource Center). This was
    incorporated in his first book, Poems, published in 1911. This book received minimal attention, with the exception of the criticism of the coarse literature. In
    1909, two years prior to the publishing of Poems, Brooke published his first individual poems. During this time, Brooke found himself emotionally confused,
    with a rocky love life. From 1908 to 1912, he had relationships with Noel Olivier, the youngest daughter of the governor of Jamaica; Ka Cox, the previous
    president of the Fabian Society in which he held presidency and Cathleen Nesbitt, an actress. Also, during this time Brooke finished his dissertation on
    John Webster and Elizabethan dramatists. His poem, “The Old Vicarage, Grantchester” portrayed the house he resided in during this time (“Rupert Brooke”
    (Photograph, Flickr, "Statue of Rupert Brooke outside The Old Vicarage, Grantchester")
    Poets.org).
    “In Grantchester, in Grantchester! —
    Some, it may be, can get in touch
    With Nature there, or Earth, or such.”
    After returning to England from traveling to France and Germany, Brooke received a fellowship at King’s College. With the assistance of his mentor, Edward
    Marsh, Brooke was successful in compiling an anthology contemporary works. The purpose of the anthology, Georgian Poetry, was to create a new
    audience for the new, changed poetry of the modern poets. Published at the end of 1912, it included contributions from Walter de la Mare, John Masefield
    and D. H. Lawrence, ensuring its instant success. The anthology’s poems were written in the anti-Victorian style, using the simplistic, rustic style of the
    rebellion against Victorianism. Themes such as love and friendship, considered too sentimental and shallow by critics, were integrated. Though criticized,
    the poetry reflected England’s mood leading up to WWI. Brooke was even credited with spearheading the Georgian Poetry movement that resulted from the
    anthology (“Rupert Brooke.” Biography Resource Center).
    Rupert Brooke experienced an emotional crisis in 1913, brought on by numerous factors, including emotional confusion. Following this, he traveled to
    America, Canada and the South Seas for many months. The essays he wrote for the Westminster Gazette during this time were collected for Letters for
    America, published in 1916 after his death. Also, during this travel he wrote many of his poems, including “Taire Tahiti” and “The Great Lover” (“Rupert
    Brooke.” Poets.org).
    After returning to England, Brooke originally planned to participate in the war as a journalist, but turned to military service. Originally joining the Officer
    Training Corps, he was swayed to join the Royal Navy Division by Winston Churchill, whom he came in acquaintance with through his poetry and literary
    influence. He was sent to Antwerp, Belgium in September of 1914, and later evacuated from Antwerp by the British forces. This was part of the Antwerp
    Expedition, his first experience in war. He is famous for saying “It’s a great life, fighting, while it lasts,” during his time fighting in the war (Neumann). These
    experiences inspired him to write poems on his return to Britain, including "Peace" and "The Soldier." "Peace" addressed the war in a lighter tone, describing it
    as “a cleansing force that would revitalize Britain” (Neumann). The Soldier is his most renowned work, brought a voice to the soldiers and the war, and
    addressed the sacrifices and casualties occurring that soldiers felt were almost meaningless (Neumann).
    Animation of Rupert Brooke reading "The Soldier"
    Video made by me (Catherine)
    Citation for photograph:
    (Photograph, Berkeley SunSITE "Rupert Brooke")
    In 1915, the year of Brooke’s death, he joined the Hood Battalion and left for Gallipoli with the Navy. Brooke died from blood poisoning resulting from an
    insect bite before reaching the destination on April 23, 1915. The ship was in the Aegean Sea, and Brooke was buried on the island Skyros located in the
    Sea. He was 27 years old, still considered a young poet in the eyes of literature (Neumann). His young death affected poets of the time as well as politicians
    and the general public, all shaken by his loss in the midst of the pinnacle of his career (“Rupert Brooke” Biography Resource Center).
    WORKS CITED:
    Neumann, Caryn E. “Rupert Brooke.” United States at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. 2008. ABC-CLIO. 26 Oct. 2008 <http://www.usatwar.abc-clio.com/>.
    “Rupert Brooke.” Biography Resource Center. Gale. Springfield Township High School Library. 26 Oct. 2008 <http://infotrac.galegroup.com/‌itweb/‌?db=BioRC>.
    Rupert Brooke. Photograph. Berkeley. 2008. Berkeley SunSITE Digital Library.
    2008. Berkeley SunSite. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/
    gaybears/brooke/>.
    “Rupert Brooke.” Poets. Org. 2008. Academy of American Poets. 26 Oct. 2008 <http://www.poets.org/‌poet.php/‌prmPID/‌181>.
    Statue of Rupert Brooke outside The Old Vicarage, Grantchester. Photograph.
    Flickr. 2008. Flickr. 2008. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.flickr.com/photos/
    26475989@N08/2646271432/>.
    The Life and Poetry of Siegfried Sassoon
    Zachary Endter
    Poems are nothing more than a reflection of the life and thoughts of the writer. Therefore, gaining an awareness of Siegfried Sassoon’s life is a worthy cause if one wishes to understand his poetry. His life began in Kent, England in the year 1886. By all accounts, Sassoon’s family of five was wealthy. His father was a Jewish merchant and his mother was from the Thorneycroft family of England, known for their artistic talent (“Siegfried Sassoon.” BBC). As a young man, Siegfried enjoyed the perks of living on the countryside; he spent the majority of his time fox-hunting, playing cricket, golfing, and writing romantic poems, some of which were published (Means). While a cultured family such as his valued education, Sassoon was a poor student and left Cambridge University after a short time (“Siegfried Sassoon.” BBC). {SassoonwithHorse.jpg} Photograph. The Parish of Heytesbury. "Sassoon With Horse."
    The next stage of Sassoon’s life, the army, began with a bicycle ride to a recruiting station of the Sussex Yeomanry in 1914 (Means). At that time, he was still a member of the elite group who viewed war as noble and the soldiers as content, irregardless of what the soldiers were actually going through. Prior to his enlistment, Siegfried wrote “War is our scourge; yet war has made us wise/And, fighting for our freedom, we are free” (qtd in “Siegfried Sassoon.” Peace People). However, this ignorant cheerfulness that he displayed would not last long. In fact, it has been argued that his peaceful background made his reaction to the war more volatile (Means).
    In 1916, Sassoon began his first hardship when he was sent to the front lines where he became part of the Royal Welch Fusiliers (“World War One. . .”). Perhaps to make up for the losses of his brother Hamo and friend David Thomas to the Germans, Sassoon fought with an almost insane and often impulsive bravery. In fact, he earned the Military Cross, an honor for an English soldier, after carrying a wounded soldier to safety, despite the ongoing heavy artillery fire from enemies. For this reason and others, Sassoon’s comrades referred to him as “Mad Jack” (Means).
    Nevertheless, Sassoon never advanced extremely far in rank due to his strictly pacifistic view of the war. He gleaned this perspective after seeing the rift between civilians, scheming Generals, and life-risking soldiers first hand while being transported from the front lines to England several times for medical reasons that included being shot in the neck. During this experience, Sassoon was disheartened to see that the people of England viewed war as necessary and valiant, much like he did previously, and the generals viewed soldiers as figures and percentages rather than beloved human beings. Yet, weeks later, he would have to once again witness first-hand the atrocities of trench warfare. Naturally, Sassoon’s poetry and prose reflected his change in ideology; his delicate language and jovial attitude were gone (“Siegfried Sassoon.” Peace People). Now, his poetry involved gritty imagery and thought-provoking sarcasm (“World War One…”).
    Not willing to limit his anti-war vocalizations to poetry, Sassoon wrote and published the "Soldier’s Declaration" in 1917. From the beginning of the declaration, Sassoon makes it clear that he does not feel like he is a rogue soldier challenging the established order, but rather that his words embodied the thoughts and feelings that other soldiers were having difficulty expressing. Despite his own military decoration, he mocked the honorary ribbons and medals that were often fawned over by women in England. In fact, Sassoon cast his own Military Cross into the river Mersey, an act which made his devotion to his cause undeniable. As one would expect from the experiences mentioned earlier, Sassoon emphasized the difference in views between soldiers and others, but also focused on how the point of the war had changed since the outset. In order to make his argument appear more valid in the eyes of the elite, the entire document was written in a rather formal manner (Griffiths).
    Of course, this small literary rebellion would not go unnoticed, which is exactly what Sassoon had hoped for. During May, 1917, copies of the "Soldier’s Declaration" were mailed to a variety of English newspapers. Siegfried Sassoon also failed to report for military service, which was ignored by the authorities due to his history as a hero. However, they were forced to rethink their decision when Sassoon’s "Soldier’s Declaration" was read out loud in the House of Commons by a pacifist Parliament member. At first, members of Parliament planned on sending Sassoon to a court martial, where a substantial punishment would most likely be chosen for him. Fortunately, Sassoon’s friend Robert Graves, a poet himself, was kind enough to convince the Parliamentary board that Sassoon was not responsible for the words he had written. Graves argued that Sassoon was suffering from neurosis, also known as “shell shock.” Not only did it alleviate the problem of what to do with Sassoon, but it was also convenient for the authorities, as it showed a significant pacifist figure as insane (“About… Sassoon”).
    In the end, the board concluded that Sassoon would be sent to Craiglockhart Military Hospital for mental treatment. This hospital was solely for English military officers, and Sassoon received a large amount of attention from Dr. William Rivers, who became a mentor during a troubling and confusing time in Sassoon’s life. Dr. Rivers found within a week that there was absolutely nothing wrong with Sassoon’s mind. However, meeting Dr. Rivers was far from the most important event to take place at Craiglockhart; Sassoon made the acquaintance of Wilfred Owen. While Sassoon didn’t know it yet, Owen’s war poetry would go on to parallel his own in distinction. Nervous at first, Wilfred Owen introduced himself to Sassoon without mentioning that he, too, was a poet. Later, when Sassoon found out about their shared love for poetry, he set to work on helping Owen develop his poetry. Due to the proximity of their residences at the time, they had the privilege of meeting daily. These talks with Sassoon helped enliven Owen’s imagination as well as boost his confidence in his writing. Owen had an equally positive effect on Sassoon. While Sassoon had grown to become fiery, quick to action, and sometimes irrational, Owen contained calmness and understanding that helped to balance Sassoon’s emotions (“The War Poets…”).
    With his mental strength restored (thanks to Wilfred Owen, rather than the facility), Sassoon returned to duty again in 1918, this time in Palestine. Before long, he was sent to France, but a bullet wound in the head resulting from Sassoon foolishly removing his helmet ended his spasmodic military career (“The War Poets…”). Within months, the armistice had been made and Sassoon wrote "Everybody Sang." Yet, his poetry would have surely been more retrospective and depressing if he was aware of Wilfred Owen’s death just one week before this joyous peace. On the whole, Sassoon’s hardened personality was ill-suited for the life he had enjoyed before the Great War. The result was a long period of depression (“About… Sassoon”).
    Eventually, though, Sassoon adjusted to a life devoid of war poetry and devoted himself to a smattering of activities, some of them literary. First of all, he spread his pacifist political ideas through involvement with the Labor Party and lecture tours across England and the United States. He also briefly served as editor for the Daily Sketch, a liberal English newspaper. Following that, in 1928, Sassoon wrote an acclaimed trilogy of semi-fictional autobiographies of George Sherston (“Siegfried Sassoon.” Biography Resource Center). For the most part, the tales were actually Sassoon’s life story, but tagging the books as fictional ensured that the British government could not claim that the story was libelous (“Siegfried Sassoon.” Peace People). Although it didn’t prove to be a source of many poems, Sassoon began to question his sexuality and engaged in a series of homosexual relationships. Despite this, he married the young Hester Gatty, the mother of his only child, George. In short time, the marriage fell through and Sassoon again embraced his previous sexual orientation with a slew of escapades (“About… Sassoon”).
    Many years later, Sassoon made a major spiritual decision; he became Catholic. This was a serious choice for him more so than for others due to the content of his past poems. Several times he had confronted the idea of God existing in a place as unholy and cruel as the trenches of World War I (“Siegfried Sassoon.” Peace People). While his later poems did take on a more religious tone, they were criticized for lacking in originality and quality (“Siegfried Sassoon.” Biographical Resource Center). Despite this, Sassoon was a devout follower and when he died on September 1st, 1967, he was buried at St. Andrew’s Church (“About… Sassoon”). His death, albeit natural, was a poignant loss to the literary community he had avidly been involved in for 80 years.
    Even today, Sassoon’s poetry is dissected and analyzed by students and professors. It is particularly interesting due to Sassoon’s gradual “ripening of a very great talent,” an observation made by the columnist P.J. Kavanagh (qtd. in “Siegfried Sassoon.” Biography Resource Center). Additionally, unlike other famous authors of the past, his work is relevant today. Although the technology that the soldiers in Iraq use may be different, they still endure the agony that results from the loss of a human life. Easily, the voice of an actual soldier can be drowned out by fervent support at home, and Sassoon played the vital role of foot soldiers’ representative. Across the globe, he has been duly recognized for his importance in all of these areas. In 1957, Sassoon was the awarded the Queen’s Gold Medal for Poetry, a prestigious award for British poets instituted by King George V (“Siegfried Sassoon.” Biography Resource Center). It is also of note that there are two highly organized web communities centered on Sassoon’s poetry, “Counter-Attack” and the “Sassoon Fellowship” (“About… Sassoon”). Based on this history, there is little doubt that Sassoon’s influence has a timeless quality.
    Shown here is an animation of Sassoon reading his poem, "The Dug Out."
    Animation. YouTube. "Siegfried Sassoon 'The Dug Out'"
    Works Cited
    “About Siegfried Sassoon.” Siegfried Sassoon Fellowship. 2008. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.sassoonfellowship.org/‌siegfriedsassoonfellowship/‌id1.html>.
    Griffiths, Nicholas. “Literary analysis: A soldier’s declaration, and the rearguard, by Siegried Sassoon .” Helium. 2008. Helium, Inc. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.helium.com/‌items/‌515565-analysis-a-soldiers-declaration-rearguard>.
    Means, Robert. “Siegfried Sassoon Biography.” Famous Poets and Poems. 2008. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://famouspoetsandpoems.com/‌poets/‌siegfried_sassoon/‌biography>.
    PoetryAnimations, dir. Siegfried Sassoon “The Dug Out.” 3 Apr. 2008. YouTube. YouTube, LLC. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.youtube.com/‌watch?v=R-_HELBuz3w&feature=related>.
    Sassoon with Horse. Photograph. Heytesbury. 20 Mar. 2005. The Parish of Heytesbury. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.heytesbury.org.uk/‌IMAGES/‌SassoonwithHorse.jpg>.
    “Siegfried Sassoon.” BBC. 2008. British Broadcasting Corporation. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.bbc.co.uk/‌history/‌historic_figures/‌sassoon_siegfried.shtml>.
    “Siegfried Sassoon.” Biography Resource Center. Gale. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://infotrac.galegroup.com/‌itweb/‌?db=BioRC>.
    “Siegfried Sassoon.” Peace People. 2008. Peace Pledge Union. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.ppu.org.uk/‌people/‌sassoon.html>.
    “The War Poets - Siegfried Sassoon.” The War Poets of Craiglockhart. 2008. Napier University. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://sites2.scran.ac.uk/‌Warp/‌WarPoetsSiegfried3.htm>.
    “World War One: Siegfried Sassoon.” Making the Modern World. 2004. The Science Museum. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/‌learning_modules/‌english/‌03.TU.01/‌?section=3>.
    Works Consulted
    Egremont, Max. “The Siegfried Line.” The New Republic 20 Feb. 2006: 27-33. Wilson Biographies Plus Illustrated. H.W. Wilson. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://hwwilsonweb.com/>.
    “Siegfried Sassoon: Biography.” Virtual Seminars for Teaching Literature. 11 Sept. 2007. Oxford University. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/‌ltg/‌projects/‌jtap/‌tutorials/‌intro/‌sassoon/>.
    John McCrae
    Kelsie Righter
    Every soldier had his own way of interpreting the war. Whether it was death, pride, or the countryside, all of their views were different. But the way that John McCrae expressed his thoughts and feeling on the First World War were to be remembered forever. John McCrae was one of the famous War Poets who wrote during WWI, his most famous poem being “In Flanders Fields” (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). {John_McCrae.jpg}
    John McCrae was born on November 30, 1872 to Lieutenant-Colonel David McCrae and Janet Simpson Eckford McCrae. At a young age, John developed an interest in learning, especially pathology. Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae soon became a well educated man. His schooling began at the Guelph Collegiate Institute where he started to write poetry. It was at this young age that he developed an interest in the military (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). He then attended the Highfield Cadet Corps at fourteen years of age, and later enlisted in the Militia field battery commanded by his father at age seventeen. When John graduated from the Guelph Collegiate Institute, he was the first student to ever win a scholarship to the University of Toronto, where he later studied. After studying at the university for three years, his asthma forced him to take a year off of school. During his year off, he taught English and mathematics as the assistant resident master at the Ontario Agricultural College in Guelph. While teaching, he was captured by the love of one of his student’s eighteen-year-old sister. However, it caused him great grief when he was informed that she passed away. This event was another topic he expressed throughout his poetry, also on the theme of death (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”).
    He returned to the University of Toronto in 1893, and graduated in 1894 with a degree in Bachelor of Arts. After graduation, he attended the University of Toronto medical school. During the summer of his third year at medical school, he worked at the Garrett Hospital in Mount Airy as a resident physician. This hospital was a summer convalescent home for sick children, and he wrote essays on his young patients. To help pay for his school tuition, he tutored other students, two of whom turned out to be some of the first women doctors in Ontario (Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”).
    Although John was training to be a doctor, he did keep himself occupied with other tasks. While in school, he perfected his poetry skills. At the university, he had sixteen poems and several short stories published in a wide variety of magazines, one of which being Saturday Night. Another thing to keep his time occupied was the military (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). All throughout school he kept a strong connection between himself and the military, becoming a gunner with a Number 2 Battery in Guelph in 1890, Quarter-Master Sergeant in 1891, Second Lieutenant in 1893, and Lieutenant in 1896. He was also a member of the Queen’s Own Rifles of Canada, of which he was elected captain.
    After completing his studies at the University of Toronto, he received a Bachelor of Medicine degree and a gold medal from the University of Toronto medical school. For a year he worked as resident house officer at the Toronto General Hospital. Then he worked as an assistant resident along with his brother at the John Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. Here the brothers became close associates of Dr. William Osler, the pre-eminent medical educator of that time (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”).
    In 1901, John McCrae resumed his studies in pathology. He became occupied with two duties; research work in the Medical Faculty laboratories at McGill and autopsy work at Montreal General Hospital (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). Then John was appointed resident pathologist at Montreal General Hospital in 1902, and later was chosen to be an assistant pathologist in 1904 at the Royal Victoria Hospital. He studied in England for several months and became a member of the Royal College of Physicians (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). The next year John was appointed pathologist to the Montreal Foundling and Baby Hospital, and three years later at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Infectious Diseases. But all of this hard work did not keep him preoccupied. John McCrae lectured at the University of Vermont Medical College and in clinical medicine at McGill (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). He also wrote crucial articles for the Montreal Medical Journal and American Journal of Medial Science, covering multiple medical topics (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). Both him and his brother Thomas were major contributors to a ten-volume textbook, Osler’s Modern Medicine, in 1909 (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). John was also the author of a textbook on pathology published in 1912.
    It was because of his enthusiasm and sense of responsibility that he became such a respected teacher as well as doctor (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). He always attended Sunday services at St. Paul’s Presbyterian Church in Montreal. Writing poetry as a member of the Shakespearean Club and the Pen and Pencil Club was another one of his regular activities (“Lieutenant colonel John McCrae”). John McCrae was not only a poet, but a sketch artist as well. He drew small, detailed pencil sketches on his trips to South Africa, the United States, and Scotland (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”).
    John McCrae felt it was his duty to fight in war. When the South African War began in October of 1899, he requested postponement of a fellowship in pathology that he was awarded in Montreal at McGill University. John then set sail to Africa where he spent a year there with his unit. After his year on that continent, he left with mixed feelings about war (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). He still felt the need to fight for one’s country, but was overcome by shock and disappointment by the poor treatments of the sick and injured soldiers. John resigned from the First Brigade of Artillery in 1904 once he was promoted to Captain, and then later Major. He was not active in the military for another ten years in 1914.
    Britain declared war on Germany on August 4, 1914. Because Canada was a member of the British Empire, they were automatically at war, and all of its people from coast to coast responded immediately. John McCrae, who was at that point ranked Major and second-in-command, along with 45,000 other Canadians rushed to help. McCrae was appointed brigade-surgeon to the First Brigade of the Canadian Forces Artillery. Before he left for Europe, a horse named Bonfire was given to him as a gift. Once over in war, John would write letters to his young nieces and nephews from Bonfire, with {poppies.jpg} a hoof print signature (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”).
    In April of 1915, McCrae was located in the area called Flanders, trenches near Ypres, Belgium. This is the site where the heaviest, bloodiest fighting took place during the First World War. Being the surgeon he was, John was surrounded by death every day. The day before he wrote “In Flanders Fields”, his closest friend was killed in the line of battle, and buried with a temporary grave consisting of a wooden cross (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). Blood-red poppies were blooming all around where honored soldiers lay to rest (“John McCrae…”). Veterans of The First World War sell these flowers to remember those who died on that field many years ago (“In Flanders Fields”). John McCrae felt the need to give those soldiers a voice, and he did so in his second to last poem, his most famous one (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”).
    Severe asthma attacked John McCrae during the summer of 1917, and by the beginning of 1918, his occasional bouts of bronchitis developed into pneumonia (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). As John grew ill, he learned that he became the most honored Canadian, selected consulting physician to the First British Army. Number 14 British General Hospital for Officers became his home for the next short week. As much as medicine tried to help his condition, John only continued to grow worse. He died the way most soldiers died during the war, of disease (“John McCrae…”). His life ended on January 28, only five days after being diagnosed with pneumonia and meningitis (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”).
    Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae was laid to rest by the sides of his closest companions during the war, near Flanders Fields. Bonfire led the procession to Wilmereux Cemetery where he was buried with full honor (“Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae”). John’s riding boots were placed backwards in Bonfire’s stirrups as they marched their way to peace at last.
    Works Cited
    The Barden Garden: Poppies. Photograph. Flickr. 12 June 2008. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.flickr.com/‌photos/‌21861018@N00/‌2574000452/>.
    “In Flanders Fields.” Poetry for Students. Vol. 5. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 1999. 154-169. Ed. Mary Ruby. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://find.galegroup.com/‌gvrl/‌infomark.do?&contentSet=EBSK&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=GVRL.poetry&docId=CX691300022&source=glae&userGroupName=erde79591&version=1.0>.
    “John McCrae: In Flanders Fields (1915).” Contents of Reading about the War. 28 Apr. 2006. Washington State U. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.wsu.edu:8080/‌~wldciv/‌world_civ_reader/‌world_civ_reader_2/‌mccrae.html>.
    “Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae.” Veterans Affairs Canada. 7 Apr. 2005. 28 Oct. 2008 <http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/‌remembers/‌sub.cfm?source=history/‌firstwar/‌mccrae>.
    We Are the Dead. Photograph. Flickr. 11 Nov. 2007. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.flickr.com/‌photos/‌78215847@N00/‌1975424709/‌sizes/‌o/>.
    Carrie Quaco
    Wilfred Owen
    On March 18, 1893 in Oswestry, England, Susan Shaw gave birth to her first son, Wilfred Edward Salter Owen. Soon after, Thomas Owen hurried home from India to marry Susan and to see his son Wilfred for the first time. Because of his grandfather’s death in 1897, the Owen family moved to Birkenhead and Wilfred was taught at the Birkenhead Institute. After that they moved to Shrewsbury, where Owen’s education was continued at the Technical School in Shrewsbury. He was interested in the arts at a very young age, and started writing poetry when he was 17 years old (“Wilfred Owen” 1). He was unsuccessful at gaining access to the University of London after graduating in 1911 and spent the next year as a lay assistant for Reverend Herbert Wigan. At the age of 20, Wilfred went to France to work as an English language teacher, and loved life over in France. (“Wilfred Owen”). {wilfredarmy.jpg} Wilfred Owen. Biography Resource Center. Gale.
    While visiting home in October of 1915, Owen saw government propaganda and decided to enlist in the army. He originally served as a cadet in the Artists’ Rifles, but was then declared an officer and trained in marksmanship. While he was in training, his regiment struggled during the Battle of Somme. They were resisting the oncoming Germans by the time Owen arrived at the western front in January 1917. He was immediately thrown into intense battling and was hospitalized with a concussion due to an explosion during battle (“Great World Writers: Twentieth Century”).
    Owen was then diagnosed with shell shock and evacuated to an Edinburgh War Hospital named Craiglockhart. Shell shock is “a term used during the First World War to describe the psychological trauma suffered by men serving on the war's key battlefronts” (qtd in… “Shell Shock”). Another patient at Craiglockhart, Siegfried Sassoon, introduced Owen to many well-known writers and poets, including Robert Graves. Siegfried Sassoon went on to become a very successful poet, publishing many poems and books about the war. During his time at Craiglockhart Wilfred Owen edited the hospital’s magazine, The HYDRA, and wrote the majority of his most important poems (“Wilfred Owen” 1).
    After being released from Craiglockhart, Owen returned to war. On November 4, 1918, he died while leading his men across the Sambre canal at Ors. Owen was only 25 years old. His parents heard the news on November 11, the day of the Armistice. The Armistice is the agreement between the Germans and the Allies that ended the war (“Armistice”). All of Owen’s poems were compiled and appeared in December 1920, entitled Poems of Wilfred Owen, with an introduction by Siegfried Sassoon (“Great World Writers: Twentieth Century”).
    Owen’s career as a poet was strongest in the last few months of his life. His poems often illustrated the horrors of warfare along with the places that he was in, and the human body in relation to those places. It has been stated that his poems “stand in stark contrast to the patriotic poems of war written by earlier poets” (qtd in… “Wilfred Owen”). His poems spoke mainly about the horrible things that he had seen in war, as opposed to those written by said earlier poets, which focused more on patriotism. Owen only had five poems published before his death. Almost all of his poems were published after his death- including Poems of Wilfred Owen.
    “The main drift of Wilfred Owen's verse is the shattering of the illusion of the glory of war, and its mood is not free from a scathing bitterness for the men who nurture this illusion” (“Wilfred Owen’s Poems”). Owen wanted to educate everyone on the horrors of the war, so that they knew what was happening to soldiers overseas. “By May 1918 Owen regarded his poems not only as individual expressions of intense experience but also as part of a book that would give the reader a wide perspective on World War I” (qtd in… “Wilfred Owen” 1). Even today, the dreadfulness of the war is evident when reading Wilfred Owen’s poems.
    This poem, entitled “Arms and the Boy”, is a good example of Wilfred Owen’s description of war:
    Let the boy try along this bayonet-blade
    How cold steel is, and keen with hunger of blood;
    Blue with all malice, like a madman's flash;
    And thinly drawn with famishing for flesh.
    Lend him to stroke these blind, blunt bullet-heads
    Which long to muzzle in the hearts of lads.
    Or give him cartridges of fine zinc teeth,
    Sharp with the sharpness of grief and death.
    For his teeth seem for laughing round an apple.
    There lurk no claws behind his fingers supple;
    And God will grow no talons at his heels,
    Nor antlers through the thickness of his curls.
    Wilfred Owen once said, "My subject is war, and the pity of war. The poetry is in the pity" (qtd in… “Prose and Poetry-Wilfred Owen”). Throughout his lifetime and even afterwards, he had many great poems published, all describing the First World War in great detail. Since then, Wilfred Owen has come to be known as the most famous poet of World War I.
    Works Cited
    “Armistice.” First World War. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.firstworldwar.com/‌features/‌armistice.htm>.
    Great World Writers: Twentieth Century. Ed. Patrick M. O’Neil. New York: Marshall Cavendsh, n.d.
    “Prose and Poetry- Wilfred Owen.” First World War. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://www.firstworldwar.com/‌poetsandprose/‌owen.htm>.
    “Shell Shock.” First World War. 28 Oct. 2008 <http://www.firstworldwar.com/‌atoz/‌shellshock.htm>.
    Wilfred Owen. 30 Oct. 2008 <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/‌arts/‌main.jhtml?xml=/‌arts/‌2007/‌11/‌03/‌boowen103.xml>.
    “Wilfred Owen” 1. Biography Resource Center. Gale. 23 Oct. 2008 <http://infotrac.galegroup.com/‌itweb/‌?db=BioRC>.
    Wilfred Owen. Biography Resource Center. Gale. 30 Oct. 2008 <http://infotrac.galegroup.com/‌itweb/‌?db=BioRC>.
    “Wilfred Owen.” Poetry.org. 23 Oct. 2008 <http://www.poets.org/‌poet.php/‌prmPID/‌305>.
    “Wilfred Owen’s Poems.” Literature Resource Center. Gale. 29 Oct. 2008 <http://infotrac.galegroup.com/‌itweb/‌?db=LitRC>.
    Works Consulted
    Making the Modern World. 28 Oct. 2008 <http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/‌people/‌BG.0192/>.
    “Siegfried Sassoon.” First World War. 28 Oct. 2008 <http://www.firstworldwar.com/‌poetsandprose/‌sassoon.htm>.
    Stallworthy, Jon. Wilfred Owen. London: Oxford University, 1974.
    War Poets Collection. 28 Oct. 2008 <http://www2.napier.ac.uk/‌warpoets/‌collection.htm>.
    Randall Jarrel
    Sean McKenna
    Randall Jarrell was born in Nashville, Tennessee on May 6th, 1914. He had a sister who died shortly before he was born, and a younger brother, Charles. His father, Owen Jarrell, worked as an assistant photographer and later opened a studio of his own. His parents, struggling financially, moved to Long Beach, California with their children. Later, struggling to co-exist, his parents divorced and Randall and his brother moved to their uncle’s, back in Nashville, along with their mother. Once more, Randall and his brother moved to their Grandparents in Hollywood California where Randall was raised by his grandparents (Galens: 1), (“Life of….”: 4).
    In high-school Randall took business courses, originally thinking that he would like to have a career in that field. However, he later realized his love for poetry and began to pursue it. After completing high-school he received an undergraduate degree in Psychology and a graduate degree in English from Vanderbilt University. After graduating he took a teaching job Kenyon College. In the year 1939 he accepted a new teaching career at the University of Texas, located in Houston. This career led him to meeting his first wife, Mackie Langham. This is the time period where Randall’s first poems started being printed in a number of newspapers and Magazines including The Southern View, The American Review, and the Kenyon Review (Woodall: 4).
    His first poems focused on many subjects except for war. These categories included growing up, death, and political situations. He first became published in 1940 with his poetic collection, Rage for the Lost Penny. Randall then published his first book, Blood for a Stranger in the year 1942. In the same year, he enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps. His ambition was to become a pilot but he failed to do so and after ending his career in the Air Corps, enlisted in the regular army as a flight and navigator instructor at a United States air base. This job provided Randall with much of his incentive for writing his poems, as he was able to witness the horrors of the war first hand in this way. He dropped his old subjects and began to take up a new subject for his poems to revolve around. He started writing from the perspective of dead American soldiers, who lost their lives in the war. In his poems the soldiers are trying to understand life, and where, in a way, philosophical. (Galens: 1), (poets.org: 3).
    {rjarrell.jpg} Randall Jarrell; poets.org; #3
    (Randall Jarrell; poets.org; #3)
    Unlike many previous war poets, Randall Jarrell was not part of the original “War Poet” movement. The original movement took place in Europe during world war two, and was started, mainly, by British soldiers, rather than Americans such as Randall. Also unlike many World War I poets, Randall was the only poet of his kind during the specific time period that he was writing War Poetry (poets.org: 3). However there are a number of aspects of Jarrell's life that give good reason to believe that he was inspired by this original movement. Like Wilfred Owen, of WWI, Jarrell focused on the horrors of War and that which he had experienced. He also did not express abiased opinion, favoring one side over another. Instead he focused on how nightmarish war is in general. In addition, he too, used a great deal of metaphors in his works, just as the previous generation of war poets had. Another factor which points to the fact that Jarrell was inspired by previous war poets is the fact that the poets of WWI were the first poets in history to write in the style that they did. If Jarrell could be considered part of the second generation of war poets then it is only just to point to WWI poets as his inspiration.
    Later, during his career as a control tower operator, Randall published his second book, Little Friend, Little Friend, in the year of 1945 and was the first poetic piece that made him reputed for his work as a poet. He was then discharged from the Army in the year 1946 (Galens: 1). Randall’s poetic pieces published after Little Friend, Little Friend were pieces which expressed much compassion for others’ lives, practical skill, and “almost painful sensitivity” (poets.org: 3). These characteristics are fused together in such a way that makes his poetry unique and interesting. For his poetry, Randall received a great many awards which consist of the O. Max Gardner Award, the National Institute of Arts and Letters Committee for the Bellingen Award, and the American University Award for Juvenile Literature. When his career as a control tower operator ended, Randall took the job of a professor at the woman’s college, the University of Carolina, Greensboro. He worked there continuously except for the opportunities he took to guest teach classes elsewhere (Poets.org: 3).
    He was later diagnosed with a manic disorder shortly before his death. However, he was not killed by his disorder- he was killed by a car when crossing the street close to his home in Greensboro, North Carolina on October 14’th, 1965. His death is rather controversial, considering the fact that many believe that Randall being hit by a car was an act of suicide, due to the fact that he was diagnosed and may have wanted to end his life in this way rather than waiting for his death. He continued his job at the university until his death at the age of 51 (Woodall: 4), (poets.org: 3).
    By the end of his life Randall Jarell had published nine collections of poetry. In the order in which they were published, these collections are The Rage for the Lost Penny in the year 1940, Blood for a Stranger in 1942, Little Friend, Little Friend in 1945, Losses in 1948, The Seven League Crutches in 1951, Selected Poems in 1955, The Woman at the Washington Zoo in 1960, The Lost World in 1965, and Complete Poems in the year 1969 (Woodall: 4).
    Works Cited
    Galens, David. "Randall Jarrell 1914-1965." enotes.com. 29 Oct. 2008
    <http://www.enotes.com/poetry-criticism/jarrell-randall>.
    "Life of Randall Jarell." Randall Jarrell. 28 Oct. 2008 <http://www.uncg.edu/
    lib/arch/jarrell/time.html>.
    Randall Jarrell. Photograph. poets.org. 1997. 30 Oct. 2008
    <http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/9>.
    "Randall Jarrell." poets.org. 1997. 23 Oct. 2008 <http://www.poets.org/
    poet.php/prmPID/9>.
    Woodall, Diana. "Randall Jarrell: The Great World War Two Poet." Biography:
    Randall Jarell. 28 Oct. 2008 <http://project1.caryacademy.org/echoes/
    03-04/Randall_Jarrell/DefaultRandallJarrell.htm>.

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